4. SITE CARE AND MAINTENANCE Administration Set Change..................................................................................... 88 Maintaining Vascular Access Device (VAD) Patency: Flushing and Locking.................................................................................................. 91 Vascular Access Devices (VADs): Ongoing Assessment, Site Care, and Dressing Change.................................... 96 Vascular Access Device (VAD) Removal. ............................................................ 102 5. INFUSION-RELATED COMPLICATIONS: IDENTIFICATION & INTERVENTION Air Embolism............................................................................................................... 108 Allergic Reaction and Anaphylactic/Anaphylactoid Reactions..................... 111 Catheter Damage. ......................................................................................................114 Central Vascular Access Device (CVAD) Malposition. .....................................118 Central Vascular Access Device (CVAD) Occlusion..........................................122 Central Vascular Access Device (CVAD)-Associated Venous Thrombosis................................................................................................................. 129 Circulatory Overload. .............................................................................................. 133 Infiltration/Extravasation....................................................................................... 135 Nerve Injuries. ........................................................................................................... 145 Phlebitis...................................................................................................................... 148 Vascular Access Device (VAD)-Associated Infection..................................... 152 6. OTHER INFUSION-RELATED PROCEDURES Preparing Parenteral Medications. ...................................................................... 157 Implanted Vascular Access Port: Accessing and Deaccessing................... 160 Phlebotomy: Blood Sampling from a Vascular Access Device (VAD)........ 166
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